Business Agreement Rules as per Islam

Irfan sulehri

In modern day, Islamic business agreement rules provide a unique set of guidelines rooted in faith. Governed by principles found in the Quran and Hadith, these rules emphasize fairness, transparency, and ethical conduct. From the necessity of witnesses to the prohibition of interest (riba), there are several key aspects of business agreements in Islam. To ensure you are always following the accurate practices, follow the below mentioned aspects.

Business Agreement Rules as per Islam

In Islam, business agreements are subject to specific legal requirements to ensure fairness and justice. These requirements are rooted in Islamic jurisprudence and ethics. Below, we outline the key aspects of business agreement rules in Islam:

Presence of Witness

One important business agreement rule as per islam is regarding Witness testimonies. In Islam, the presence of at least 2 witnesses is a vital component of validating a business agreement. whether you are buying any property or renting an apartment in Pakistan, you should get witness testimonies.

Gender of Witnesses

Islamic law permits the testimony of both male and female witnesses. For a male, 2 witnesses are fine. However, the requirement for two female witnesses in some cases stems from a specific hadith (sayings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him). This hadith suggests that the testimony of two women is required to provide support and ensure accuracy in cases where one woman might forget or make an error.

Therefore, to witness a business agreement as per Islam, the witnesses can be in any of the following order.

  • 2 Males
  • 1 Male and 2 Females
  • 4 Females

Recording Witness Testimonies

Witness testimonies should be recorded in writing, if possible, as this provides a clear record of their statements. The witnesses should attest to the agreement’s terms and conditions, confirming that all parties have consented willingly and without coercion.

Qualities of Witnesses

In Islam, witnesses should possess specific qualities to be considered reliable:

  • Honesty: Witnesses should be known for their honesty and integrity in the community.
  • Maturity: They should be mentally and emotionally mature, capable of understanding the implications of the agreement.
  • Adherence to Islamic Principles: Witnesses should be practicing Muslims who understand and adhere to Islamic values and ethics.


While Islamic law recognizes the validity of verbal agreements, it highly recommends documenting business agreements in writing. This recommendation is rooted in the principles of transparency, accountability, and justice.

Written contracts serve as tangible evidence of the agreed-upon terms and conditions between parties. The act of documenting the agreement helps establish clarity and reduces the potential for misunderstandings or disputes.

Surah Al-Baqarah (2:282): “O you who have believed, when you contract a debt for a specified term, write it down. And let a scribe write [it] between you in justice. Let no scribe refuse to write as Allah has taught him.”


A written contract in an Islamic business agreement should include:

  • Parties’ Names: Clearly identify the individuals or entities entering into the agreement.
  • Terms and Conditions: Specify the rights and obligations of each party, including details such as price, quantity, quality, and payment terms.
  • Date and Duration: Indicate the date of the agreement’s commencement and its duration if applicable.
  • Signatures/Witnesses: Include the signatures of the parties involved and the witnesses who attest to the contract’s authenticity.

Arbitration and Mediation

In the event of a dispute, a written contract can be particularly valuable. It provides a clear reference point for arbitration or mediation, facilitating the resolution process based on the agreed-upon terms.

Halal Transactions

In Islam, a transaction is considered halal if it adheres to Islamic principles and is in accordance with Sharia (Islamic law). It is one of the key business agreement rules as per Islam.

Prohibited Elements (Riba and Unethical Practices):

A halal transaction is one that is ethically sound, morally upright, and free from elements that are expressly prohibited in Islamic teachings.

  • Riba (Usury/Interest): One of the most significant prohibited elements in Islamic finance and business transactions is riba, which refers to any form of unjust, exploitative interest. Islam strictly prohibits the giving or taking of interest on loans or investments. Instead, Islamic finance relies on profit-and-loss sharing and risk-sharing principles.
  • Unethical Practices: Halal transactions should not involve any unethical or exploitative practices. This includes deceit, fraud, deception, gambling (maysir), and any form of exploitation or oppression.

Other Important Aspects to Consider: Islamic Law for Business Agreement

There are several other aspects one should consider with regards to Islamic Law for business agreements.

Avoiding Gharar (Excessive Uncertainty)

Islamic transactions should also avoid excessive uncertainty or ambiguity (gharar). Both parties should have a clear understanding of what they are exchanging, and there should not be ambiguity that could lead to disputes.

Contracts Must Be Free from Coercion

All parties involved in a business agreement must enter into the contract willingly and without any form of coercion or duress. Contracts obtained under pressure or through deceit are considered invalid in Islamic law.

Ensuring Equitable Profit and Loss Sharing

In Islamic finance, profit-and-loss sharing is a fundamental principle. Business agreements should ensure that profits and losses are shared fairly among the parties involved, and that one party does not bear an undue burden.

Aqd (Contract)

The contract itself is a fundamental aspect. It must be clear, specific, and agreed upon by all parties involved. The terms and conditions should not violate Islamic principles.

Hawala (Money Transfer)

In Islamic finance, hawala is a legitimate means of transferring money, provided it is done transparently and adheres to the principles of fairness and trust.

Waqf (Endowment)

Some businesses may engage in charitable activities by establishing waqf (endowment) funds, which are dedicated to social welfare and community development.

Sharia Compliance

Businesses and financial institutions often have Sharia compliance boards or scholars who ensure that their operations and products adhere to Islamic principles.


In conclusion, Islamic business agreement rules serve as a beacon of ethical guidance in the world of commerce. Rooted in the Quran and Hadith, these principles highlight fairness, transparency, and ethical conduct as essential components of any business transaction. Whether you’re a practitioner seeking to align your business dealings with Islamic values or someone intrigued by the ethics of Islamic commerce, these rules underscore the enduring relevance of faith-based principles in the modern business landscape.

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